International Journal of

Business & Management Studies

ISSN 2694-1430 (Print), ISSN 2694-1449 (Online)
DOI: 10.56734/ijbms
Preferential Trade Agreements and Civil Society Restrictions: Empirical Evidence from Gravity Model


This paper asks the question of how preferential trade agreements affect civil society restrictions. It argues that preferential trade agreements reduce civil society restrictions. However, this relationship varies across different types of trade agreements. We test the hypotheses using a gravity model of trade by incorporating directed-dyads data on PTAs and civil society restrictions from 1948 to 2009. The results suggest a curvilinear relationship between preferential trade agreements and civil society restrictions. Moreover, it appears that countries signing in-depth trade agreements increase civil society participation compared to the ones signing shallow trade agreements.